What Changed in the 9th Edition of MLA?
As stated in the Ninth Edition of the MLA Handbook, “This edition retains the MLA’s unique system of documentation, established in the 8th edition of the handbook in 2016”
While the Core Elements and In-text citation guidelines remain the same as MLA 8, this updated version includes “more comprehensive resources with more examples, a reorganized handbook where information could easily be found, and [an] explanation of the documentation system”
New and expanded information on Inclusive language, Annotated Bibliographies, and Bibliographic and Content Notes has also been added.
There are a few general guidelines to consider when choosing Inclusive Language:
Ultimately, Inclusive Language should be respectful and approached with sensitivity, keeping the context and audience in mind. It’s important to understand that each reader comes from a variety of different backgrounds and unique experiences, so avoiding bias that could make some people feel excluded is essential.
Annotations are typically written as brief and clearly expressed phrases or complete sentence, and are used to evaluate or describe a source, and sometimes they do both.
Some other things to keep in mind:
► When in doubt, reach out to your instructor for clarification on the desired length of the annotations, and if phrases or complete sentences are preferred.
“Bibliographic notes can help writers avoid cluttering the text o digressing from the paper’s argument. Below are examples of common uses of notes:
Like sources cited parenthetically in the text, sources cited in bibliographic notes must correspond to entries in the list of works cited.”
“Content notes offer the reader commentary or information that the main text cannot accommodate. Use them in the following ways:
Endnotes – found at the end of the research paper
Footnotes – found at the bottom of each page of the research paper (as necessary)
For more information on the Styling and Placement of Notes in Text refer to [7.3] and [7.4] of the MLA Handbook Ninth Edition.
This Video is just a place holder for now.
Formatting the Citations
The List of Works Cited [5.1] (page 105)
For the Works Cited list, there are three types of entries that will be used most often. [5.100] (page 197)
1. Works that use One Container [5.101] (page 198-199)
2. Works that use Two Containers [5.102] (page 200-203)
This may include:
3. Works that are Self-Contained [5.103] (page 204-206)
This may include:
Formatting the Work Cited Page
Citing Sources in the Text [6.1 - 6.2] (page 227-230)
There are two types of In-Text Citation:
1. Citation in prose – this type of citation is worked into the natural flow of the sentence structure.
2. Parenthetical Citations – this type can be found in (parentheses) at the end of the sentence.
Citation in prose: Naomi Baron broke new ground on the subject.
Parenthetical citation: At least one researcher has broken new ground on the subject (Baron).
Baron, Naomi S. “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media.” PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.
Sometime the In-Text Citation will also include the specific location of where the information can be found: page number, line number, time stamp, etc. This additional information must be included in the parentheses.
According to Naomi Baron, reading is “just half of literacy. The other half is writing” (194). One might even suggest that reading is never complete without writing.
Reading is “just half of literacy. The other half is writing” (Baron 194). One might even suggest that reading is never complete without writing.
Avoid – providing the author’s name or title of a work in both your prose and parentheses.
Incorrect: According to Naomi Baron, reading is “just half of literacy. The other half is writing” (Baron 194)
Correct: According to Naomi Baron, reading is “just half of literacy. The other half is writing” (194).
Avoid – using the author’s full name in the parenthetical citation. Only the surname is required.
Incorrect: At least one researcher has broken new ground on the subject (Naomi S. Baron).
Correct: At least on researcher has broken new ground on the subject (Baron).
Avoid – using the words like “page”, “pages”, or “page number” in your in-text citations. It is assumed that any numbers used are references page numbers (unless otherwise specificed).
However, if you are citing something other than page numbers, you must specify. See the example below:
In Prose In Parenthetical Citations
chapter 2 (ch. 2)
line 110 (line 110) – Do NOT abbreviate “line” or “lines”
scene 4 (sc. 4)
Call Number: LB2369 .M52 2021
Publication Date: 2021-05-17
The new, ninth edition builds on the MLA's unique approach to documenting sources using a template of core elements--facts, common to most sources, like author, title, and publication date--that allows writers to cite any type of work, from books, e-books, and journal articles in databases to song lyrics, online images, social media posts, dissertations, and more. With this focus on source evaluation as the cornerstone of citation, MLA style promotes the skills of information and digital literacy so crucial today.