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Citation Guide

This guide gives overviews and sample citations for MLA and APA citation styles.


Audiovisual Media can include

Both Visual and Audio Audio Only Visual Only
  • Films
  • TV shows
  • YouTube videos
  • Music
  • Speech recordings
  • Artwork
  • PowerPoint slides
  • Photographs

Essential elements:

  • Author/producer- last name, first (or production company if no individual is stated)
  • Year of the work
  • Title of the work
    • Describe the audiovisual work in square brackets ([Film], [TV series], etc.)
  • Publisher
  • Web address or database, if online


General Format
Producer, First initial. Second initial. (Producer), & Director, First initial. Second initial. (Director). (Year). Title of the

motion picture [Motion Picture]. Country of origin: Studio.


Producer, First initial. Second initial. (Producer). (Year). Title of film [DVD]. City, State: Production Company.


Rivera, J. (Producer), & Docter, P. (Director). (2002). Monsters Inc. [Motion Picture]. California, CA: Buena

Vista Home Entertainment.

YouTube Video

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Author screen name. (Year, Month Day
{of video post}). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from (URL of specific video)

  Johnstone, H. (2015, January 20). How to Peel Garlic with a jar! Amazing! [Video

file]. Retrieved from

Video from a Library Database

Crump, James. (2015). Troublemakers: The Story of Land Art [Video file]. Retrieved from

No Author for Video from a Library Database

Media Rich Learning (2009). The Civil Rights Movement [Video file]. Retrieved from


Music Recording

Writer, First initial. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by (First initial. Second initial.) Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).


Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London, England: Big Pig Music Limited.

Music from a Library Database

Title of Song [Medium]. (Copyright Year). Production/Record Company. (Year produced). Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database Name.


Sing a Bluegrass Song [Streaming Audio]. (2011). Rebel. (2011). Retrieved February 25, 2016, from Music Online: American Song. 

Online Media

Include as much of the following information as available when citing Web sites:

  • Name of author(s)
  • Date of publication
  • Name of Web page
  • URL of Web page

Tips to remember:

  • Italicize the name of the Web page. The name of the overall Web site is not needed.
  • Capitalize only the first word of the page's title, subtitle, and proper nouns.
  • Do not place a period after the page's URL to end the citation. This will corrupt the URL address.
  • Try to keep the URL on one line. If it must continue onto another line, be sure to break the URL before a forward slash (/).

Web Page



Web Page, No Stated Author

If no author can be found, begin the citation with the title of the Web page.


Africa: arts and cultures. (2009). Retrieved from




If the author's full name cannot be found, it is acceptable to use the blogger's screen name.


Lessig, L. (2009, April 26). Architects of openness [Web log message]. Retrieved from


Annoyed Librarian. (2009, July 22). Improving neighborhood libraries [Web log message]. Retrieved from