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English 103 - Representation in Film

For Teachers

Representations of Masculinity



Are men the latest victims of media misrepresentation? [interview] (Meghan Casserly, Forbes Magazine, 2012) 

How do media images of men affect our lives? (Sam Femiano and Mark Nickerson, Center for Visual Literacy) 

How the media define masculinity (Media Smarts) 

The depressing depiction of men in the media (Nicole Johnson, Good Men Project, 2011) 

When the media misrepresents black men, the effects are felt in the real world [newspaper article] (Leigh Donaldson, The Guardian, 2015) 

Why are men on TV always such fools? [newspaper article] (Dominic Utton, The Telegraph, 2014) 




GREVEN, DAVID. "Contemporary Hollywood Masculinity and the Double-Protagonist Film." Cinema Journal, vol. 48, no. 4, Summer2009, pp. 22-43. EBSCOhost.



AFRICAN American men in motion pictures

Men in Motion Pictures

Masculinity in Popular Culture


Representations of Femininity



7 ways women and girls are stereotyped, sexualized, and underrepresented on screen (Dana Liebelson and Asawin Suebsaeng, Mother Jones, 2012) 

Beauty and the Beast: is Disney's empowerment mission on track? [newspaper article] (Andrew Pulver, The Guardian, 2016) 

Girls on screen: how film and television depict women in public relations [magazine article] (Jane Johnston, PRism Journal, PRaxis, Bond University, 2010) 

Portrayal of women in the media: TV drama (Cheryl Ni, Media Representation Group) 

Sexist screen representations of women start in the script (Radha O'Meara, The Conversation, 2016) 

This is why it’s so hard to fight for gender equality in Hollywood [multimedia] (Alyssa Rosenberg, Washington Post, 2015) 

Working women on television: a mixed bag at best (Neda Ulaby, National Public Radio, 2013) 



Kirby, Philip. "The Girl on Fire: The Hunger Games , Feminist Geopolitics and the Contemporary Female Action Hero." Geopolitics, vol. 20, no. 2, Apr-Jun2015, pp. 460-478. EBSCOhost.



Sexism in Mass Media

Representations of Class

Representations of Disability



Loftus, Charlotte. "Sages, Villains, and Seers." Bitch Magazine: Feminist Response to Pop Culture, no. 69, Winter2016, pp. 45-47. (EBSCOhost)

12% evil (Laurence Clark, Ouch! It's a disability thing, BBC, 2007) 

Disability and the media: disability in films (David Gale, Disability Horizons, 2012) 

Disability in film: is cinema finally moving with the times? [newspaper article] (David Cox, The Guardian, 2012) 

Disabling imagery and the media: an exploration of the principles for media representations of disabled people(Colin Barnes, British Council of Organisations of Disabled People, 1992) 

Media and people with disabilities: are we represented accurately? (Sandy Murillo, Sandy's View, Chicago Lighthouse, 2015) 




Meekosha, Helen. "Superchicks, Clones, Cyborgs, and Cripples: Cinema and Messages of Bodily Transformations." Social Alternatives, vol. 18, no. 1, Jan. 1999, pp. 24-28. (EBSCOhost)



PEOPLE with disabilities in motion pictures

PEOPLE with disabilities in mass media

Attitudes toward Disabilities


Representations of Race




American Sniper perpetuates Hollywood’s typical Arab stereotypes (Michael Green, The Conversation, 2015) 

Common portrayals of Aboriginal people [Canada] (Media Smarts) 

Finally a movie that captures what it's like to be Asian American [Lilting] (Elaine Teng, New Republic, 2014) 

Hollywood stereotypes: why are Russians the bad guys? (Tom Brook, BBC, 2014) 

How to get the African films we all should see onto our screens (Lindiwe Dovey, The Conversation, 2016) 

Native Americans: negative impacts of media portrayals, stereotypes (Farah Qureshi, Journalist's Resource, 2016)

Portrayal of minorities in the film, media and entertainment industries [race] (Yurii Horton, Raagen Price and Eric Brown, Ethics of Development in a Global Environment, Stanford University, 1999) 

Racism, ethnicity and television (Encyclopedia of Television, Museum of Broadcast Communications, 2016) 

TV and film have mixed portrayals of immigrants [newspaper article] (Jason Ruiz, New York Times, 2012) 




Ramasubramanian, Srividya. "Using Celebrity News Stories to Effectively Reduce Racial/Ethnic Prejudice." Journal of Social Issues, vol. 71, no. 1, Mar. 2015, pp. 123-138. EBSCOhost.



Race in Motion Pictures

Immigrants in Motion Pictures

STEREOTYPES (Social psychology) in mass media


Representations of Family

Representations of Teenagers

Adolescence and the portrayal of teens in film and television (Sean Faulkner, 2013) 

Does American Teen reinforce high school stereotypes? [newspaper article] (Ella Taylor, Phoenix New Times, 2008)

Generation multiplex: the image of youth in contemporary American cinema [excerpt] (Timothy Shary, University of Texas Press, 2002) 

Modernism, cinema, adolescence: another history for teen film (Catherine Driscoll, Screening the Past, 2011) 

Movie teens: how accurately are they portrayed? (Nicki Burnier, student, Dundee Crown High School, Films 4 2, 2004)

The Hunger Games: representation of teenagers (Neill Ford, Scribd, 2014) 

Representations of LGBQTI People



I'm a lesbian and I want to see more people like me in film and TV too [magazine article] (Claire Pires, Teen Vogue, 2016) 

Queer representation in film and television (Media Smarts) 

Teenage Kicks review – a compelling new voice in queer Australian cinema [film review] (Luke Buckmaster, The Guardian, 2016) 

Transgender representation in the media (Jessica N Jobe, Eastern Kentucky University, 2013) 

Victims or villains: examining ten years of transgender images on television (GLAAD) 




Chung, Sheng Kuan. "Media Literacy Art Education: Deconstructing Lesbian and Gay Stereotypes in the Media." International Journal of Art & Design Education, vol. 26, no. 1, 01 Feb. 2007, pp. 98-107. EBSCOhost.



Homosexuality in Motion Pictures

Homosexuality on Television

LGBT people in mass media



Representations of the Military



Beyond G.I. Jane: a look at the portrayal of women armed services members in modern military movies (Abra Burkett, American University, 2014) 

Cinematic war: more truthful than your video journal (Kate Preston, Duke University, 2012) 

Glorification of the military in popular culture and the media [excerpt] Laura Powell, Chapter 8, Good intentions : norms and practices of imperial humanitarianism, 2014)  

Missing in action: why are there so few cultural portrayals of women in combat? [magazine article] (Gayle Tzemach Lemmon, Atlantic Monthly, 2015) 

Portraying the military in film and on television: who’s telling our stories? (Rachel A Brune, Task and Purpose, 2014)

Screens of terror: representations of war and terrorism in film and television since 9/11 (Philip Hammond, Academia)

There’s a divide between civilians and soldiers, partly because of Hollywood [newspaper article] (Stephanie Merry, Washington Post, 2015) 



Stachowitsch, Saskia. "Professional Soldier, Weak Victim, Patriotic Heroine." International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 15, no. 2, June 2013, pp. 157-176. EBSCOhost.

Military Films

WAR in motion pictures

Families of Military Personnel