Elements of In-Text Citation
APA Style uses the author-date method of in-text citation. There are several ways of documenting sources in-text, but all should include the following:
The purpose of in-text citation is to direct the reader to the corresponding citation on the References list. For example, using the brief in-text citation below, the reader could find the full citation on on the References list.
Experts' ability to reason depends on well-organized knowledge (Bransford, 2000).
Bransford, J. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Strategies for In-Text Citation
You may word your in-text citation in several different ways to maximize the effectiveness of your writing. The most straightforward method is to include the author's (or authors') last name and the page number(s) following the quotation, idea, or fact you are citing.
There is not a strong correlation between a high GPA and students who began reading at an early age (Kahneman & Klein, 2009).
Kahneman & Klein (2009) found that there is not a strong correlation between a high GPA and early readers.
"The correlation between early reading and graduating GPA is not high" (Kahneman & Klein, 2009, p. 522).
Kahneman, D. & Klein, G. (2009). Conditions for intuitive expertise: A failure to disagree. American Psychologist, 64, 515-526.
One to Two Authors: Cite each author every time the reference occurs.
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was first published in 1929 (American Psychological Association, 2010).
Three to Five Authors: Cite each author the first time the reference occurs. In subsequent references, cite only the first author followed by "et al." (meaning "and others") and the date.
Example - First Occurence
A study by Nittrouer, Lowenstein, and Packer (2009) compared the abilities of native English-speaking children and adults.
Example - Subsequent Occurrences
The study found that English-speaking adults performed best (Nittrouer et al., 2009).
Six or More Authors: Cite only the name of the first author followed by "et al." and the date.
A study by Alloy et al. (2009) examines the relationship between bipolar personality and substance abuse.
Alloy, L.B., Bender, R.E., Wagner, C.A., Whitehouse, W.G., Abramson, L.Y., Hogan, M.E., ... Harmon-Jones, E. (2009). Bipolar
spectrum-substance abuse co-occurrence: Behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity and impulsiveness as shared
personal vulnerabilities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 549-565. doi:10.1037/a0016061
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association.
Nittroer, S., Lowenstein, J.H., & Packer, R.R. (2009). Children discover the spectral skeletons in their native language before the
amplitude envelopes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 1245-1253.
When no author is available, cite in-text using the first few words of the source's reference list entry (usually the title.)
From 2010 to 2022, the U.S. Mint will issue quarters featuring United States National Parks ("Quarter to Feature Smokies," 2009).
Quarter to feature Smokies. (2009, September 10). Knoxville News Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.knoxnews.com